Pollution analysis in the port area of the city of Livorno using unconventional high-time resolution instrumentation
Keywords:Keywords: nanoparticles, microparticles, ports pollution, PM, Aer Nostrum
The AER NOSTRUM project (”Aria bene comune”) aims to preserve and improve air quality in port
areas. As part of the AER NOSTRUM project ARPAT has created a monitoring and analysis
network in the period 2021-2022 in the ports of Livorno and Portoferraio. In particular, ARPAT used
unconventional instruments such as an optical microparticle counter and a nanoparticle counter, in
two port sites in the city of Livorno. For the first time in the port, nanoparticle monitoring was
carried out for extended periods in the four seasons of the year. In the monitoring campaigns
carried out with these instruments, the number of micro- and nanoparticles was measured, a
parameter which was combined with the measurement of the concentration of gases and data on
naval traffic in the port area, in order to have indications both on the impact of port activities and
on the correct functioning of these tools, which do not refer to official monitoring methods. Through
the analysis of a few days taken as examples, it was verified that very often the transit or stop of
ships, when it produces a direct effect on the monitoring data, is recognizable through data
acquired as minute averages by non-conventional instruments.
It can also be stated that the instrumentation used proved to agree in the data per minute even
with the instrumentation that applies the standard method for measuring the concentration per
minute of gases, verifying the measurement quality of these instruments
AER NOSTRUM – Interreg Marittimo-It Fr-Maritime (https://interreg-maritime.eu/web/aer-nostrum)
ISPRA – Rete mareografica nazionale (https://www.mareografico.it/?session=0S1661632081GCI79G86KA&syslng=ita&sysmen=-1&sysind=-1&syssub=-1&sysfnt=0&code=STAZ&idst=1L&mode)
Inkyu Han, Elaine Symanski & Thomas H. Stock (2017) Feasibility of using low-cost portable particle monitors for measurement of fine and coarse particulate matter in urban ambient air, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 67:3, 330-340, DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2016.1241195
Juarez Facio, A.T., Yon, J., Corbiere, C., Rogez-Florent, T., Castilla, C., Lavanant, H., Mignot, M., Devouge-Boyer, C., Logie, C., Chevalier, L., Vaugeois, J.M., Monteil, C., 2022. Toxicological impact of organic ultrafine particles (UFPs) in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells at air-liquid interface. Toxicol. Vitro 78, 105258. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2021.105258.
Kuittinen, N., Jalkanen, J.P., Alanen, J., Ntziachristos, L., Hannuniemi, H., Johansson, L., Karjalainen, P., Saukko, E., Isotalo, M., Aakko-Saksa, P., Lehtoranta, K., Keskinen, J., Simonen, P., Saarikoski, S., Asmi, E., Laurila, T., Hillamo, R., Myllari, F., Lihavainen, H., Ronkko, T., 2021. Shipping remains a globally significant source of anthropogenic PN emissions even after 2020 sulfur regulation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 55 (1), 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c03627.
Kwon, H.S., Ryu, M.H., Carlsten, C., 2020. Ultrafine particles: unique physicochemical properties relevant to health and disease. Exp. Mol. Med. 52 (3), 318–328. https:// doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-0405-1.
Lavigne, E., Lima, I., Hatzopoulou, M., Van Ryswyk, K., van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R.V., Chen, H., Stieb, D.M., Crighton, E., Burnett, R.T., Weichenthal, S., 2020. Ambient ultrafine particle concentrations and incidence of childhood cancers. Environ. Int. 145, 106135 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106135.
Moni.ca. - Piattaforma di monitoraggio e controllo dell’Autorità di Sistema Portuale del Mar Tirreno Settentrionale (https://www.monicapmslivorno.eu/SERVIZIWEB/livorno/statistiche)
OMS : World Health Organization. (2021). WHO global air quality guidelines: particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
World Health Organization (https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/345329)
Pourret O, Hursthouse A. It's Time to Replace the Term "Heavy Metals" with "Potentially Toxic Elements" When Reporting Environmental Research. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Nov 13;16(22):4446. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16224446. PMID: 31766104; PMCID: PMC6887782.
Ravina, M., Caramitti, G., Panepinto, D., Zanetti M. “Air quality and photochemical reactions: analysis of NOx and NO2 concentrations in the urban area of Turin, Italy.” Air Qual Atmos Health 15, 541–558 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-022-01168-1
Sultan F.I. Abdillah, Ya-Fen Wang, Ambient ultrafine particle (PM0.1): Sources, characteristics, measurements and exposure implications on human health, Environmental Research, Volume 218,
, 115061, ISSN 0013-9351, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.115061.
Torsten Tritscher, Michael Beeston, Axel F Zerrath, Sherrie Elzey, Thomas J Krinke, Eric Filimundi, Oliver F Bischof “NanoScan SMPS – A Novel, Portable Nanoparticle Sizing and Counting Instrument”, 2013. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 429, Nanosafe 2012: International Conferences on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials 13–15 November 2012, Grenoble, France. DOI 10.1088/1742-6596/429/1/012061
Nanoscan SMPS Nanoparticle Sizer Model 3910. https://tsi.com/products/particle-sizers/scanning-mobility-particle-sizer-spectrometers/nanoscan-smps-nanoparticle-sizer-3910/
Wang, X., Shen, Y., Lin, Y., Pan, J., Zhang, Y., Louie, P. K. K., Li, M., and Fu, Q.: Atmospheric pollution from ships and its impact on local air quality at a port site in Shanghai, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6315–6330, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-6315-2019, 2019.