Occupational and environmental impact of hazardous drugs
The term hazardous drugs was first used in 1990 by ASHP (American Society of Hospital Pharmacists) and taken up by OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) in 2004 .
Hazardous medicinal products (HMPs) are mainly used for the treatment of cancer and for the treatment of other diseases and are a source of occupational exposure and environmental impact.
In a recent study published by the European Commission in March 2021, the number of workers definitely exposed at European level is estimated at at least 1.8 million. Also taking into account the potential exposure throughout the health sector, the number rises to 12.7 million of which 7.3 million are nurses [European Commission, 2021; ETUI, 2020; Musu & Lindsley,
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Fu, Y.;et al. (2019). Degradation of Three Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs by UV/Persulfate: Degradation Mechanisms, Efficiency in Effluents Disposal. Chem. Eng. J. 2019, 356, 1032–1041
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HSE Guideline on the Safe Handling of Cytotoxic Drugs 2022
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Musu, T. & Vogel, L. 2018. Cancer and work: understanding occupational cancers and taking action to eliminate them. ETUI. https://www.etui.org/sites/default/files/cancer-ENWEB.pdf
Musu, T., Lindsley I. 2022. The ETUI’s list of hazardous medicinal products (HMPs) including cytotoxics and based on the EU CLP classification system of Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic (CMR) substances. Report 2022.05. ISBN : 978-2-87452-641-1 European Trade Union Institute Bd du Roi Albert II, 5 1210 Brussels
National Toxicology Program (2019) NTP monograph on the systematic review of occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy agents and adverse health outcomes. https://doi.org/10.22427/NTP-MGRAPH-5
NIOSH List of Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings, 2020
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 2016. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. https://www.osha.gov/ SLTC/hazardousdrugs/controlling_occex_hazardousdrugs.html
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