Antibiotic resistant Bacteria and their resistance genes in Biofilm Samples isolated from Model Water Distribution Systems of Hospitality homes in Benin City, Nigeria.
Keywords:Biofilms, Resistance genes, Antibiotic resistance, Tetracycline resistance, Methylobacterium fujisawaense
Water distributed in residential facilities such as Hotels, Inns and Guest houses are generally intended for several purposes like drinking and bathing. It is not sterile, regardless the water treatment been applied. Microbial presence in pipe-borne water results in the colonization of the distribution systems infrastructure and biofilm formation. Biofilms are well structured multicellular communities which are buried in a self-produced extra-polymeric substance that functions as an obstacle to antibiotic diffusion. Bacteria in biofilms have some advantage over their free floating counterparts which include protection from disinfectants and ability to resist most antibiotics especially in water piped systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance and their resistance genes in biofilm isolated from faucets giving water to end users in hospitality homes. Thirty six biofilm samples were collected from 6 hospitality homes. A total of 108 biofilms bacteria were isolated using spread plate method on R2A medium. Antibiotic susceptibility test was determined using disk diffusion method. Isolates were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and three resistance genes; tetA, tetM and ermB were detected by Polymerase chain reaction. Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sp, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia vermicola, and Serratia liquefaciens, were isolated. Alcaligenes spp was the most frequently isolated in all Hospitality homes. tetA, resistance gene was more prevalent. It was detected in 49% of biofilm isolates, tetM, 45%, and ermB, 46% of all biofilm samples. Bacteria isolated from Biofilm were highly resistant to Chloramphenicol (100%) while lowest resistance was to Imipenem (1%). In view of the above, there is therefore an urgent need for the Hotel Management to work out modalities in eliminating biofilm bacteria associated with hospitality homes, which could pose a great public health risk due to the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria harboring antibiotic resistant genes.
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