Manganese exposure: long-term post-professional follow-up.

Ziadi Boukerma, Ahmed-Lakhdar Behlouli



Objective: This study was conducted to assess the evolution of long-term clinical signs of chronic intoxication during exposure to manganese dioxide. Method: Ten workers from a dry cell manufacturing unit were followed for a period of 20 years.These workers were exposed to manganese dioxide for 13 years at concentrations between one and three mg.m-3 of air.Medical examinations and toxicological analyses were done shortly before the cessation of exposure to risk. 10 years then twenty years after other medical exams were done.Results: The results of the toxicological analyses show a linear relationship between the levels of manganese in the blood and the levels of manganese in the urine.  Some clinical signs disappeared after 10 years of non-exposure and totally after 20 years. Conclusion: This study shows the importance of early diagnosis of chronic manganese poisoning, especially since at this stage there may be a total regression of the pathology.


Parkinson disease, manganese, manganism, occupational exposure.

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