Determination of dust sources, atmospheric concentrations and exposure attributed to tasks in magazine paper production. Proposing remedial actions.

Per Søstrand, Tor Erik Danielsen

Abstract


Atmospheric concentrations of paper dust in different parts of three magazine paper mills were determined by sampling and by direct reading instruments. In most areas the concentration of “total dust” was below 0.6 mg·m-3, but close to paper slitters the levels were 2 - 3 mg·m-3 and during cleaning with pressurized air, momentary atmospheric concentrations higher than 30 mg·m-3 were revealed in the Winder and Rewinder section. Personnel whole-shift exposure to “total dust” were in the range 0.03 - 1.90 mg·m-3, and the arithmetic mean 8 hours TWA exposure among all operators was 0.37 mg·m-3. The assessment of inhaled doses “total dust” showed that “Winder assistants” inhaled the highest doses, 12.2 mg·week-1, and that use of dust masks during cleaning with pressurized air reduces inhaled doses significantly. Cutting and slitting of cores and paper rolls were the main sources to paper dust in the “Dry end” of the paper machines, while dried aerosols from process waters were the main sources to paper dust in the “Wet end”. Local ventilation extraction spots close to paper slitting processes are probably the most efficient remedial action to reduce atmospheric concentration of paper dust. As dust settlement on several sensors along the production line might interrupt the continuous production, ventilation extraction spots close to the slitting processes has the potential to both reduce operator exposure and improve production regularity.

Keywords


Paper machine, paper dust, exposure, dust sources, remedial actions

Full Text:

PDF

References


American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1999. Particle Size-Selective Sampling for Particulate Air Contaminants. JH Vincent, Ed. ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH.

Davies, H.W., Teschke, K., Demers, P.A., 1999. In Field Comparison of Inhalable and Thoracic Size Selective Sampling Techniques. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 43, 381 - 392.

Demange, M., Gendre, J.C., Herve-Bazin, B., 1990. Aerosol evaluation difficulties due to particle deposition on filter holder inner walls. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 34, 399 - 403.

Görner, P., Simon, X., Wrobel, R., Kauffer, E., Witschger, O., 2010. Laboratory study of selected personal inhalable aerosol samplers. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 54 (2), 165 - 187.

Heederik, D., Burdorf, L., Boleij, J., Willems, H., 1987. Pulmonary function and interdermal tests in workers exposed to soft-paper dust. Am. J. Ind. Med., 11, 637 - 645.

Hellgren, J., Eriksson, C., Karlsson, G., Hagberg, S., Olin, A.C., Toren, K., 2001. Nasal symptoms among workers exposed to soft paper dust. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 74 (2), 129 - 132.

Hendricks, W., Stones, F., Lillquist, D., 2009. On Wiping the Interior Walls of 37-mm Closed-Face cassettes: An OSHA Perspective. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 6, 732 - 734.

Jaakkola, M.S., Jaakkola, J.K., 2007. Office Work Exposure and Adult-Onset Asthma. Environ. Health. Perspect., 115, 1007 - 1111.

Kauffer, E., Wrobel, R., Görner, P., Rott, C., Grzebyk, M., Simon, X., Witschger, O., 2010. Site Comparison of Selected aerosol samplers in the Wood Industry. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 54 (2), 188 - 203.

Kauppinen, T., Teschke, K., Savela, A., Kogevinas, M., Boffetta, P., 1997. International database of exposure measurements in the pulp, paper and paper product industries. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health., 70, 119 - 127.

Kraus, T., Pfalberg, A., Gefeller, O., Raithel, H.J., 2002. Respiratory symptoms and diseases among workers in the soft tissue producing industry. Occup. Environ. Med., 59, 830 - 835.

Kraus, T., Pfalberg, A., Zöbelein, P., Gefeller, O., Raithel, H.J., 2004. Lung Function Among Workers in the Soft Tissue Paper-Producing Industry. CHEST, 125, 731 - 736.

Lee, T., Harper, M., Slaven, J.E., 2011. Wood Dust Sampling: Field Evaluation of Personal Samplers When Large Particles Are Present. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 55, 180 - 191.

Li, S.N., Lundgren, D.A., Rovell-Rix, D., 2000. Evaluation of six inhalable aerosol samplers. AIHAJ, 61, 506 - 516.

Liou, S.H., Cheng, S.Y., Lai, F.M., Yang, J.L., 1996. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in mill workers exposed to wood dust. Am. J. Ind. Med., 30, 293 - 239.

Rostami, A.A., 2009. Computational modeling of aerosol deposition in respiratory tract: a review. Inhal. Toxicol., 21, 262 - 290.

Rylander, R., Thorn, J., Attefors, R., 1999. Airways inflammation among workers in a paper industry. Eur. Respir. J., 13 (5), 1151 - 1157.

Sahle, W., Sallsten, G., Thoren, K., 1990. Characterization of airborne dust in a soft paper mill. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 34, 55 - 75.

Sleeth, D.K., Vincent, J.H., 2012. Performance study of personal inhalable aerosol samplers at ultra-low wind speeds. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 56 (2), 207 - 220.

Söderholm, S.C., 1989. Proposed international conventions for particle size-selective sampling. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 33 (3), 301 - 320.

Thoren, K., Hagberg, S., Westberg, H., 1996. Health effects of working in Pulp and Paper Mills: Exposure, Obstructive Airways Diseases, Hypersensitivity Reactions, and Cardiovascular Diseases. Am. J. Ind. Med., 29, 111 - 122.

Thoren, K., Sallsten, G., Bakke, B., 1989. Lung function and respiratory symptoms among workers in a soft paper mill. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 61 (7), 467 - 471.

Toren, K., Järveholm, B., Sällsten, G., Thiringer, G., 1994. Respiratory symptoms and asthma among workers exposed to paper dust: a cohort study. Am. J. Ind. Med., 26 (4), 489 - 496.

Toren, K., Brisman, J., Meding, B., 1997. Sensitization and exposure to metylisothiazolonones (Kathon) in the pulp and paper industry - a report of two cases. Am. J. Ind. Med., 31, 551 - 553.

Vaisanen, O.M., Weber, A., Bennaser, A., Rainey, F.A., Busse, H.J., Salkinoja-Salonen, M.S., 1998. Microbial communities of printing paper machines. J. Appl. Microbiol., 84 (6), 1069 - 1084.

Van Ertbruggen, C., Hirsch, C., Paiva, M., 2005. Anatomically based three-dimensional model of airways to simulate flow and particle transport using computational fluid dynamics. J. Appl. Physiol., 98, 970 - 980. doi:10/japplphysiol.00795.2004.

Witschger, O., Grinshpun, S.A., Fauvel, S., Basso, G., 2004. Performance of Personal Inhalable Aerosol Samplers in Very Slowly Moving Air When Facing the Aerosol Source. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 48 (4), 351 - 368.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments




Copyright (c) 2016 Per Søstrand, Tor Erik Danielsen

© 2015 IJOEHY eISSN: 2464-8817 Associazione Italiana degli Igienisti Industriali |