Effect of inorganic lead on thyroid function of exposed workers

Ziadi Boukerma, Ahmed-Lakhdar Behlouli, Farida Djabi

Abstract


Background: The effects of long-term exposure to lead on thyroid hormones are not clear. Unlike others, some studies
report deleterious effects of inorganic lead on thyroid function. Methods: the potential endocrine disruption was evaluated
in 141 lead-exposed workers and 141 controls free from any exposure to this toxic. In the exposed group, the exposure-
retained factors are blood lead level (BLL), which reflects recent exposure, the cumulative blood lead, which reflects
the old exposure (from hiring) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), a marker of the intermediate exposure. Regarding the control
group, only blood lead was measured. Results: If TSH and FT4 were significantly higher in the exposed group, however
FT3 was significantly higher in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, FT3 is inversely correlated with age,
FT4 is positively correlated with BLL and ZPP, and TSH is positively correlated with ZPP. Conclusions: the results suggest
the existence of a deleterious effect of inorganic lead on thyroid function. Furthermore, it appears that only the intermediate
exposure seems to be responsible for this action


Keywords


Blood lead exposure; thyroid hormones; FT3; FT4; TSH; endocrine disruption

Full Text:

PDF

References


Argemi, B., 2000. Exploration biologique de la fonction thyroïdienne. L’indispensable, le confortable, le superflu. Revue de l’ACOMEN, 6 (1), 15 - 21.

Bledsoe, M.L., Pinkerton, L.E., Silver, S., Deddens, J.A., Biagini, R.E., 2011. Thyroxine and Free Thyroxine Levels in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Inorganic Lead. Environ health insights, 5, 55 - 61.

Boas, M., Feldt-Rasmussen, U., Skakkebæk, N.E., Main, K.M., 2006. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function. Eur J Endocrinol, 154 (5), 599 - 611.

Cullen, M.R., Kayne, R.D., Robins, J.M., 1984. Endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in men associated with occupational inorganic lead intoxication. Arch Environ Health, 39 (6), 431 - 440.

Delecourt, F., Forzy, A., Tilly, G., 1999. Variation de la TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) en fonction de l’âge. Ann Biol Clin, 57 (6), 739 - 40.

Dundar, B., Öktem, F., Arslan, M.K., Delibas, N., Baykal, B., Arslan, Ç., Gultepe, M., Ilhan, I.E., 2006. The effect of long-term low-dose lead exposure on thyroid function in adolescents. Environ Res, 101 (1), 140 - 145.

Dursun, N., Tutus, A., 1999. Chronic occupational lead exposure and thyroid function. J Trace Elem Exp Med, 12 (1), 45 - 49.

Erfurth, E.M., Gerhardsson, L., Nilsson, A., Rylander, L., Schütz, A., Skerfving, S., Börjesson, J., 2001. Effects of lead on the endocrine system in lead smelter workers. Arch Environ Health, 56 (5), 449 - 455.

Gennart, J.P., Bernard, A., Lauwerys, R., 1992. Assessment of thyroid, testes, kidney and autonomic nervous system function in lead-exposed workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 64 (1), 49 - 57.

Gidlow, D.A., 2004. Lead toxicity. Occup Med, 54, 76 - 81.

Hoermann, R., Eckl, W., Hoermann, C., Larisch, R., 2010. Complex relationship between free thyroxine and TSH in the regulation of thyroid function. Eur J Endocrinol, 162 (6), 1123 - 1129.

Hoermann, R., Midgley, J.E.M., 2012. TSH Measurement and Its Implications for Personalised Clinical Decision-Making. J thyroid res, 1 - 9.

Kim, H.S., Park, Y.C., Choi, J.W., Rho, W.W., Kim, D.S., Park, J.T., 1999. A Study on Thyroid Function among Male Workers Occupationally Exposed to Inorganic Lead. Korean. J Occup Environ Med, 11 (2), 153 - 160.

Klee, G.G., Hay, I.D., 1993. Role of thyrotropin measurements in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. Clin Lab Med, 13 (3), 673 - 82.

Kreutzer, H., Tertoolen, J., Thijssen, J., Der Kinderen, P., Koppeschaar, H., 1986. Analytical evaluation of four sensitive assays of thyrotropin, including effects of variations in patient sampling. Clin Chem, 32 (11), 2085 - 2090.

Lipson, A., Nickoloff, E.L., Hau, T.H., Kasecamp, W.R., Drew, H.M., Shakir, R., Wagner, H.N., 1979. A study of age-dependent changes in thyroid hormone tests in adults. J Nucl Med, 20, 1124 - 1127.

Lopez, C.M., Pineiro, A.E., Nunez, N., Avagnina, A.M., Villaamil, E.C., Roses, O.E., 2000. Thyroid hormone changes in males exposed to lead in the Buenos Aires area (Argentina). Pharmacol Res, 42 (6), 599 - 602.

Maes, M., Mommen, K., Hendrickx, D., Peeters, D., D’Hondt, P., Ranjan, R., De Meyer, F., Scharpe, S., 1997. Components of biological variation, including seasonality, in blood concentrations of TSH, TT3, FT4, PRL, cortisol and testosterone in healthy volunteers. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 46 (5), 587 - 598.

Marteau, C., Madre-Pichon, F., Chivot, J.J., 1996. Etude du taux sérique de l’hormone thyréotrope (TSH) par une méthode ultra sensible chez 91 sujets âgés de plus de 70 ans. Spectra biologie, 15 (79), 28 - 30.

Onalaja, A.O., Claudio, L., 2000. Genetic susceptibility to lead poisoning. Environ Health Perspect, 108 Suppl 1, 23 - 28.

Pekcici, R., KavlakoÈlu, B., Yilmaz, S., Ÿahin, M., Delibaêi, T., 2010. Effects of lead on thyroid functions in lead-exposed workers. Cent Eur J Med, 5 (2), 215 - 218.

Pearce, E.N., 2013. The Relationship between Serum TSH and Free T4 Is Not Log-Linear and Varies by Age and Sex. Clin Thyroidol, 25, 156 - 157.

Refowitz, R.M., 1984. Thyroid function and lead: no clear relationship. J Occup Environ Hyg Med, 26 (8), 579 - 583.

Robins, J.M., Cullen, M.R., Connors, B.B., Kayne, R.D., 1983. Depressed thyroid indexes associated with occupational exposure to inorganic lead. Arch Intern Med, 143 (2), 220 - 224.

Sandstead, H.H., 1967. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on in vivo I131 Uptake By the Rat Thyroid. Exp Biol Med, 124 (1), 18 - 20.

Sandstead, H.H., Stant, E.G., Brill, A.B., Arias, L.I., Terry, R.T., 1969. Lead intoxication and the thyroid. Arch Intern Med, 123 (6), 632 - 635.

Sapin, R., Schlienger, J.L., 2003. Dosages de thyroxine (T4) et tri-iodothyronine (T3): techniques et place dans le bilan thyroïdien fonctionnel. Ann Biol Clin, 61 (4), 411 - 420.

Schumacher, C., Brodkin, C.A., Alexander, B., Cullen, M., Rainey, P.M., van Netten, C., Faustman, E., Checkoway, H., 1998. Thyroid function in lead smelter workers: absence of subacute or cumulative effects with moderate lead burdens. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 71 (7), 453 - 458.

Siegel, M., Forsyth, B., Siegel, L., Cullen, M.R., 1989. The effect of lead on thyroid function in children. Environ Res, 49 (2), 190 - 196.

Singh, B., Chandran, V., Bandhu, H.K., Mittal, B.R., Bhattacharya, A., Jindal, S.K., Varma, S., 2000. Impact of lead exposure on pituitary-thyroid axis in humans. Biometals, 13 (2), 187 - 192.

Soltani, S., Sharifiyan, A., Ghasemi, M., Chavoshi, F., Sadeghniiat, K., Bahaedini, L., Aminian, O., Meisami, A.P., 2012. Assessment of Thyroid Function in Male Workers of Battery Recycling Factory Occupationally Exposed to Lead. J Pharmacol Toxicol, 7 (7), 338 - 343.

Tiwari, I., Timms, P., Rothe, P., 1985. Lead poisoning and euthyroid hyperthyroxinaemia. The Lancet, 325 (8444), 1508 - 1509.

Tuppurainen, M., Wägar, G., Kurppa, K., Sakari, W., Wambugu, A., Fröseth, B., Alho, J., Nykyri, E., 1988. Thyroid function as assessed by routine laboratory tests of workers with long-term lead exposure. Scan J Work Environ Health, 14 (3), 175 - 180.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Italian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

© 2015 IJOEHY eISSN: 2464-8817 Associazione Italiana degli Igienisti Industriali |